Category: Cramahe ON

Martha J. Rixon’s Short and Difficult Life

As a parent, I cannot imagine leaving my children behind and moving away forever, but that is what my great-great grandmother did. Martha Rixon left her two children with their grandparents in Ontario and went to live in Michigan. She must have had a good reason to do such a thing.1  

Martha (1834-1875) grew up in a large family in Sophiasburgh Township, Prince Edward County, Canada West. When she was a teenager, the family moved to Cramahe Township, near Brighton. Her father was a farmer and carpenter who had been born in England, and her mother’s family had come to Canada around 1800 from New York State. Martha had an older brother, two older sisters and five younger sisters. 

Martha J. Rixon, the 18-year-old daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Rixon of Cramahe, Northumberland, Canada West, was listed in the 1851 census of Canada.2 Martha was also counted in the 1861 census, single and living with Thomas and Elizabeth Rickson.3 Two small children, Samantha, age six, and Willes (Phineas), age two, were also in the household. Martha was not listed in the 1871 census of Canada, but Samantha and Phineas, listed as S., 16, and P., 12, were still living with their grandparents, Thomas and Elizabeth Rixon.4

After extensive research, it became clear that Arthur Wellington Rixon, the man who, according to a family story, was Martha’s husband and died of typhoid in 1859, probably never existed.5 Martha’s children, Samantha Rixon (1852-1928) and Phineas Rixon (c. 1859-1938) were born out of wedlock. The story about Arthur Wellington Rixon must have been concocted to hide the fact that Samantha and Phineas were illegitimate.

The identity of the children’s father (or fathers) remains a mystery. Both Samantha and Phineas indicated in their marriage records that their mother was Martha and their father’s name was Thomas.6 Phineas identified him as Thomas Rixon. Thomas might have been a first cousin from the Halton area, west of Toronto, however, there is no documentation to prove that he was ever in Cramahe. This Thomas Rixon (1834-1882) was the son of James and Mary Rixon. He married Margaret Hannah Wright in 1868 and they had five children. He became a minister in the Church of England in Arthur, Wellington County, Ontario.Could Thomas’ address in Arthur, Wellington County be a clue linking him to the fictional Arthur Wellington Rixon?

Martha and husband Moses Smith Perkins and three of his children.

Martha’s brother, William John Rixon (1826-1918), was a farmer and a Methodist minister. He and his wife and children moved to Michigan in the late 1860s. Martha accompanied them, leaving the children with their grandparents in Cramahe, and she eventually married in Michigan.8

In those days, children conceived out of wedlock were not uncommon, but that did not make it socially acceptable. It is easy to imagine that Martha’s parents were upset with her for getting pregnant, not once, but twice, and that going to the U.S. with her brother must have seemed like a good option. She probably could not afford to raise her children, and perhaps they were happy living with their grandparents with aunts, uncles, cousins and friends nearby. 

Martha married Moses Smith Perkins in Muskegon, Michigan on August 18, 1870 at a “camp meeting,”according to Moses’ great-granddaughter Roberta Heoring.9 Moses was a fruit farmer and Methodist Episcopal minister.10 His first wife, Sarah, had died, leaving him with eight small children to raise. The 1870 U.S. census showed Martha, keeping house, age 36, born in Canada, right below the entry for M.S. Perkins, in Oceana, Muskegon, Michigan.11

Roberta, who has been working on the genealogy of her family since 1991, has Moses’ diary. In it, Moses noted Martha Jane Rixon’s date of birth – December 29, 1834 in Prince Edward County, Ontario – and the date of her death from a fever at age 39, October 1, 1875. She was buried in Michigan.

Roberta says, “The cemetery is now known as Sammis/Harmon/Eilers Cemetery … located on the corner of the Perkins farm…. I have been unable to find any death records for the early members of the family.… Moses remarried shortly after the death of Martha as he had young children. He later moved his children and wife to Junction City, Kansas.”12

So it seems that, after a relatively short and probably difficult life, Martha was buried in a rural cemetery with members of her husband’s extended family. As far as I know, none of her descendants knows anything about her.

Photo courtesy Roberta Heoring.

Sources and comments

  1. It took me a long time to figure out who Samantha’s and Phineas’ mother was. I couldn’t figure out whether the Martha in the 1861 census was children’s mother or their aunt, but things became more clear after I hired professional genealogist Gabrielle Blaschuk to help. I have written a more complicated version of this story which explains how I reached these conclusions. If you would like to see that version of Martha’ story, contact me at
  2. “1851 Census of Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia,” database,, accessed Dec. 24 2009), entry for Thomas Rixon, Cramahe, citing Year: 1851, Census&nbspPlace: Cramahe, Northumberland County, Canada West (Ontario), Schedule: B, Roll: C_11739, page 129, Line:
  3. “1861 Census of Canada,” database, (, accessed May 8, 2017), entry for Thomas Rickson, Cramahe Township, Northumberland, Canada West, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, citing Library and Archives Canada; Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Census Returns For 1861; Roll: C-1055-1056. In 1861 census, Martha was listed as age 21, which was undoubtedly an error. The 1851 census listed Thomas’ and Elizabeth’s nine children: William, 26 ; Catherine, 22; Rhoda, 20; Martha, 18, Ormacinda, 16; Kezia, 15; Phebe, 11; Mary, 9; Sarah, 5.  For Martha to be 21 in 1861, she would have to have been 11 at the time of the earlier census. Names are another complication: Samantha was usually known by her nickname, Mattie, and her grandmother, Elizabeth Rixon (nee Thompson), was usually called Betsey.
  4. 1871 Census of Canada,” database, (, accessed May 8, 2017), entry for Thomas Rixon, Cramahe, Ontario, citing Library and Archives Canada, Census of Canada, 1871, Cramahe, Northumberland East, Ontario; Roll:C-9984; Page:34.
  5. Janice Hamilton, “The Ancestor Who Did Not Exist”,, April 11, 2017,
  6. “Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1857-1924,” database,, (http://www.ancestry,ca, accessed Nov. 24, 2008), entry for Samantha Rixon, 1879, Shannonville, citing “Registrations of Marriages, 1869-1922, MS932, Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.” “Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1801-1928, 1933-1934,” database, (, accessed May 10, 2017), entry for Phenas Rixon, 1883, Northumberland, Ontario, citing Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto; Registrations of Marriages, 1869-1928; Series: MS932; Reel:47.
  7. Find a Grave, entry for Thomas Rixon,, accessed May 11, 2017.
  8. William Rixon, labourer, his wife Mary Cardinell and three children were listed in Oceana, Muskegon, Michigan in the 1870 U.S. census. William later moved to California, and that is where he died.
  9. Roberta Heorman, “Re: Martha Rixon/Moses Smith Perkins,” email message to Gabrielle Blaschuk, Jan. 2, 2017, forwarded to the author, May 4, 2017. 
  10. Roberta Heorman, “Michigan Biographical Sketches,”, accessed May 11, 2017.
  11. Martha’s name is not indexed on Ancestry, but it is visible in the image of the census page. 1870 United States Federal Census, Oceana, Muskegon, Michigan; Roll: M593_692; Page: 349A; Image: 417246; Family History Library Film: 552191, M.S. Perkins; digital image, (, accessed May 9, 2017), citing National Archives and Records Administration, 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593.
  12. Roberta Heorman, “Re: Martha Rixon wife of Moses Smith Perkins”, email to the author, May 11, 2017.

The Ancestor Who Did Not Exist

Some family stories are based on just a few kernels of truth. Sometimes fiction has been wrapped around the truth simply to make it a better story, but sometimes a story has been fabricated to hide the truth. This is probably what happened to the story of my great-grandmother Samantha “Mattie” Rixon’s parents. 

Mattie was born in Cramahe Township, Upper Canada in 1856.1According to the family story, her father was Arthur Wellington Rixon, but the genealogical evidence points to a different reality: Arthur Wellington Rixon probably never existed, and she was probably born out of wedlock. 

I learned the family story about Mattie’s family from a note, written on the back of a photo of her that was emailed to me by an elderly cousin. It read: “Mattie Rixon’s father, Arthur Wellington Rixon, died of typhoid fever when she was three years old. Her mother remarried and went to the USA to live and died there when Mattie was 15. Mattie was brought up, first by her grandparents and later by her aunt, Mrs. Fennel … a daughter of Thomas Rixon, Mattie’s grandfather.”

The note was signed at the bottom, LMF, the initials of Lillian May Forrester, Mattie’s daughter and my grandmother. I believed this story for several years, making assumptions about details that didn’t make sense.

The note was on the back of this photo of a young Samantha “Mattie” Rixon

The note gave the impression that Arthur Wellington Rixon was Thomas Rixon’s son, and that Mattie’s mother’s name was unknown. But research has demonstrated that Mattie’s mother was Martha Rixon, Thomas Rixon’s daughter. Unless this was a case of incest, which is highly unlikely, Mattie’s father could not have been Thomas Rixon’s son.

Researching this period of Ontario history is difficult. Civil registration wasn’t introduced until 1855, so genealogists depend on newspapers, personal papers, land records, and so on. After having no success with my search for Arthur Wellington Rixon in genealogical records online, or in the library of Ontario Genealogical Society, Quinte Branch, I hired Gabrielle Blaschuk, a professional genealogist who lives in the area and is familiar with all the local archives and surviving collections. 

She found no trace of him in Northumberland County and her report finally convinced me the story was fiction. Some stones still have to be turned over, which is why I have used the word “probably,” it would be very surprising if Arthur turns up now. As Gabrielle noted in an email, “This total lack of confirmation when there is so much on all the other relatives is baffling, but it usually means something is out of kilter somewhere.”

One of the documents Gabrielle discovered was a thoroughly researched article about Thomas Rixon, written in 1984 by descendant Brian Harling.2 He cited a similar story about Arthur Wellington Rixon, and he too was unable to find any concrete evidence of his existence. 

Mattie was a member of a large and well-documented family in the Bay of Quinte region of Ontario, near Belleville and Brighton. Her grandparents, Thomas Rixon, a farmer and carpenter, and his wife Elizabeth “Betsey” Thompson, were married in October 1825.3 Thomas and Betsey lived in Sophiasburgh Township for many years before moving to Cramahe. The Rixons were listed in Cramahe in the 1851 census with their 11 children.4 Martha Jane was their fourth daughter, born 1834. Arthur Wellington was not listed, and I assumed that simply meant he was living somewhere else at the time. 

I have not found baptismal records for Mattie or for her younger brother, Phineas Wellington Rixon (1859-1938). The Rixons were Methodist Episcopal, and the records of the church the family attended may be in the United Church Archives in Toronto. 

The strongest clue that Mattie’s father was not named Arthur came in her 1879 marriage record. Mattie identified her parents’ names as “Thomas and Martha Rixon.”5 In his 1883 marriage record, Phineas also wrote that his father was Thomas Rixon. Knowing that the children had been raised by their grandparents, and that grandfather Thomas Rixon was the only father figure they had known, I assumed they had simply put his name on their marriage records. 

There was another Thomas Rixon (1834-1882), a cousin in Halton Township, Canada West. He could have been the father, but there is no other evidence to prove it.  As for the origin of the family story, it was probably created to hide the fact that Mattie was illegitimate. 

Unfortunately, the name Arthur Wellington Rixon has been published on the Internet for several years. When I first saw the note about Mattie’s father, I enthusiastically shared it with a genealogist who posted it on the Public Member Trees section of Since then, many people have copied it into their own trees. If you have Arthur Wellington Rixon on your tree, you need to know that he probably did not exist.

In a future post, I will write about Mattie’s mother, Martha Jane Rixon (1834-1875). 

See also: 

Janice Hamilton, “Mattie Rixon and the Forrester Family”, Writing Up the Ancestors, June 8, 2015,

Janice Hamilton, “Thomas Rixon, Ontario Farmer, Carpenter and Transplanted Englishman,” Writing Up the Ancestors, March 10, 2017,

Notes and Sources:

Arthur and Wellington were both fairly common names in every corner of the British Empire. That is probably because Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), 1st Duke of Wellington, was the army commander who led the British to defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

An accountant named E. Arthur Rixon appeared in the 1901 Census of Canada in Deseronto, County Hastings, Ontario, however, he does not seem to have been related to my family. He was born in England in 1857, so he was the same age as Mattie. 

Thomas Rixon, Martha’s cousin, was the son of James Rixon, Thomas Rixon’s brother. James came to Canada around 1820, settling near Milton. Son Thomas (1834-1882) became a minister, married and had several children, one of whom was named Arthur William Rixon (1879-1940.)

Mattie named two of her children Arthur. The first Arthur, my grandmother’s twin brother, died at birth in 1880. Her second son was Arthur Wellington Forrester (1883-1922).

  1. “1901 Census of Canada”, Manchester, Provencher, Manitoba; Page: 3; Family No: 25, ( accessed 8 June 2015), entry for Samantha Forrester; citingLibrary and Archives Canada. Census of Canada, 1901. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Library and Archives Canada, 2004. Series RG31-C-1. Statistics Canada Fonds. Microfilm reels: T-6428 to T-6556.
  2. “Fennells & Smiths, 19th Century Northumberland County, Ontario, Canada. A genealogical newsletter. Quarterly/ vol. 3 no 1/November 1984.” 
  3. Ameliasburgh Parish Register, 7B1, p. 146, Anglican church Diocese, Kingston, Ontario. 
  4. “1851 Census of Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia,” database,, accessed Dec. 24 2009), entry for Thomas Rixon, Cramahe, citing Year: 1851, Census&nbspPlace: Cramahe, Northumberland County, Canada West (Ontario), Schedule: B, Roll: C_11739, page 129, Line: 2.
  5. “Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1857-1924”database,, (http://www.ancestry,ca, accessed Nov. 24 2008), entry for Samantha Rixon, 1879, Shannonville, citing “Registrations of Marriages, 1869-1922,  MS932 Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada”